Android Realm CRUD - Spinner - Save,Retrieve,Show

October 20, 2017 Oclemy Android Realm, Android Spinner 9 minutes, 21 seconds

Realm is a fast mobile database that allows us to write database code in pure Java.

This gives us type safety and provides for greater flexibility than writing SQL code.

Type safety allows us easily catch errors at compile time.

This is a realm database tutorial with spinner.

Spinner is an android adapterview that allows us display items in a dropdown manner.

In this tutorial we save data to Realm database, retrieve data and show in a Spinner.

Let's go.

Spinner Realm

Spinner Realm

Spinner Realm

1. Create Basic Activity Project

  1. First create an empty project in android studio. Go to File --> New Project.

  2. Type the application name and choose the company name. New Project Dialog

  3. Choose minimum SDK. Choose minimum SDK

  4. Choose Basic activity. Choose Empty Activity

  5. Click Finish. Finish

Basic activity will have a toolbar and floating action button already added in the layout

Normally two layouts get generated with this option:

No. Name Type Description
1. activity_main.xml XML Layout Will get inflated into MainActivity Layout.Typically contains appbarlayout with toolbar.Also has a floatingactionbutton.
2. content_main.xml XML Layout Will be included into activity_main.xml.You add your views and widgets here.
3. MainActivity.java Class Main Activity.

In this example I used a basic activity.

The activity will automatically be registered in the android_manifest.xml. Android Activities are components and normally need to be registered as an application component.

If you've created yours manually then register it inside the <application>...<application> as following, replacing the MainActivity with your activity name:


        <activity android:name=".MainActivity">

            <intent-filter>

                <action android:name="android.intent.action.MAIN" />

                <category android:name="android.intent.category.LAUNCHER" />

            </intent-filter>

        </activity>

You can see that one action and category are specified as intent filters. The category makes our MainActivity as launcher activity. Launcher activities get executed first when th android app is run.

Advantage of Creating Basic Activity project

You can optionally choose empty activity over basic activity for this project.

However basic activity has the following advantages:

No. Advantage
1. Provides us a readymade toolbar which gives us actionbar features yet easily customizable
2. Provides us with appbar layout which implements material design appbar concepts.
3. Provides a FloatinActionButton which we can readily use to initiate quick actions especially in examples like these.
4. Decouples our custom content views and widgets from the templating features like toolbar.

Generated Project Structure

AndroidStudio will generate for you a project with default configurations via a set of files and directories.

Here are the most important of them:

No. File Major Responsibility
1. build/ A directory containing resources that have been compiled from the building of application and the classes generated by android tools. Such a tool is the R.java file. R.java file normally holds the references to application resources.
2. libs/ To hold libraries we use in our project.
3. src/main/ To hold the source code of our application.This is the main folder you work with.
4. src/main/java/ Contains our java classes organized as packages.
5. src/main/res/ Contains our project resources folders as follows.
6. src/main/res/drawable/ Contains our drawable resources.
7. src/main/res/layout/ Contains our layout resources.
8. src/main/res/menu/ Contains our menu resources XML code.
9. src/main/res/values/ Contains our values resources XML code.These define sets of name-value pairs and can be strings, styles and colors.
10. AndroidManifest.xml This file gets autogenerated when we create an android project.It will define basic information needed by the android system like application name,package name,permissions,activities,intents etc.
11. build.gradle Gradle Script used to build the android app.

3. Create User Interface

User interfaces are typically created in android using XML layouts as opposed by direct java coding.

This is an example fo declarative programming.

Advantages of Using XML over Java
No. Advantage
1. Declarative creation of widgets and views allows us to use a declarative language XML which makes is easier.
2. It's easily maintanable as the user interface is decoupled from your Java logic.
3. It's easier to share or download code and safely test them before runtime.
4. You can use XML generated tools to generate XML

Here are our layouts for this project:

(a). activity_main.xml

  • This layout gets inflated to MainActivity user interface.
  • It includes the content_main.xml.

Here are some of the widgets, views and viewgroups that get employed"

No. View/ViewGroup Package Role
1. CordinatorLayout android.support.design.widget Super-powered framelayout that provides our application's top level decoration and is also specifies interactions and behavioros of all it's children.
2. AppBarLayout android.support.design.widget A LinearLayout child that arranges its children vertically and provides material design app bar concepts like scrolling gestures.
3. ToolBar <android.support.v7.widget A ViewGroup that can provide actionbar features yet still be used within application layouts.
4. FloatingActionButton android.support.design.widget An circular imageview floating above the UI that we can use as buttons.
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<android.support.design.widget.CoordinatorLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
    xmlns:app="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res-auto"
    xmlns:tools="http://schemas.android.com/tools"
    android:layout_width="match_parent"
    android:layout_height="match_parent"
    android:fitsSystemWindows="true"
    tools:context="com.tutorials.hp.spinnerrealm.MainActivity">

    <android.support.design.widget.AppBarLayout
        android:layout_width="match_parent"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"
        android:theme="@style/AppTheme.AppBarOverlay">

        <android.support.v7.widget.Toolbar
            android:id="@+id/toolbar"
            android:layout_width="match_parent"
            android:layout_height="?attr/actionBarSize"
            android:background="?attr/colorPrimary"
            app:popupTheme="@style/AppTheme.PopupOverlay" />

    </android.support.design.widget.AppBarLayout>

    <include layout="@layout/content_main" />

    <android.support.design.widget.FloatingActionButton
        android:id="@+id/fab"
        android:layout_width="wrap_content"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"
        android:layout_gravity="bottom|end"
        android:layout_margin="@dimen/fab_margin"
        android:src="@android:drawable/ic_dialog_email" />

</android.support.design.widget.CoordinatorLayout>

(b). content_main.xml

This layout gets included in your activity_main.xml. The adapterview we use is a spinner so add spinner in your layout.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<RelativeLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
    xmlns:app="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res-auto"
    xmlns:tools="http://schemas.android.com/tools"
    android:layout_width="match_parent"
    android:layout_height="match_parent"
    android:paddingBottom="@dimen/activity_vertical_margin"
    android:paddingLeft="@dimen/activity_horizontal_margin"
    android:paddingRight="@dimen/activity_horizontal_margin"
    android:paddingTop="@dimen/activity_vertical_margin"
    app:layout_behavior="@string/appbar_scrolling_view_behavior"
    tools:context="com.tutorials.hp.spinnerrealm.MainActivity"
    tools:showIn="@layout/activity_main">

    <Spinner
        android:id="@+id/sp"
        android:layout_width="match_parent"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"
         />
</RelativeLayout>

(c). input_dialog.xml

This is our input dialog.

This dialog will be shown as our entry form.

Users will enter save data to realm database via this dialog.

It basically comprises edittext and button.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
    android:orientation="vertical" android:layout_width="match_parent"
    android:layout_height="match_parent">

    <LinearLayout
        android:layout_width="fill_parent"
        android:layout_height="match_parent"
        android:layout_marginTop="?attr/actionBarSize"
        android:orientation="vertical"
        android:paddingLeft="15dp"
        android:paddingRight="15dp"
        android:paddingTop="50dp">

        <android.support.design.widget.TextInputLayout
            android:id="@+id/nameLayout"
            android:layout_width="match_parent"
            android:layout_height="wrap_content">

            <EditText
                android:id="@+id/nameEditText"
                android:layout_width="match_parent"
                android:layout_height="wrap_content"
                android:singleLine="true"
                android:hint= "Name" />
        </android.support.design.widget.TextInputLayout>

        <Button android:id="@+id/saveBtn"
            android:layout_width="fill_parent"
            android:layout_height="wrap_content"
            android:text="Save"
            android:clickable="true"
            android:background="@color/colorAccent"
            android:layout_marginTop="40dp"
            android:textColor="@android:color/white"/>

    </LinearLayout>
</LinearLayout>

Java Classes

Let's now come to our Java classes.

Our Realm classes

Here are our Realm database classes.

(a). Spacecraft.java

This class is both our model class as well as our Realm model class.

This means that Realm will create a table for this class.

For that to happen we have to derive from RealmObject class.

package com.tutorials.hp.spinnerrealm.m_Realm;

import io.realm.RealmObject;

public class Spacecraft extends RealmObject {

    private String name;

    public String getName() {
        return name;
    }

    public void setName(String name) {
        this.name = name;
    }
}

(b). RealmHelper.java

This is like our CRUD class.

It's here that we actually save data to realm database and retrieve data as well.

package com.tutorials.hp.spinnerrealm.m_Realm;

import java.util.ArrayList;

import io.realm.Realm;
import io.realm.RealmResults;

public class RealmHelper {

    Realm realm;

    public RealmHelper(Realm realm) {
        this.realm = realm;
    }

    //WRITE
    public void save(final Spacecraft spacecraft)
    {
        realm.executeTransaction(new Realm.Transaction() {
            @Override
            public void execute(Realm realm) {

                Spacecraft s=realm.copyToRealm(spacecraft);

            }
        });
    }

    //READ/RETRIEVE
    public ArrayList<String> retrieve()
    {
        ArrayList<String> spacecraftNames=new ArrayList<>();
        RealmResults<Spacecraft> spacecrafts=realm.where(Spacecraft.class).findAll();

        for(Spacecraft s: spacecrafts)
        {
            spacecraftNames.add(s.getName());
        }

        return spacecraftNames;
    }
}

Our Activity class

(a). MainActivity.java

This is our Activity class.

Activity is an android component representing User interface.

Our activity will host a spinner and a dialog that acts as our input form.

package com.tutorials.hp.spinnerrealm;

import android.app.Dialog;
import android.os.Bundle;
import android.support.design.widget.FloatingActionButton;
import android.support.design.widget.Snackbar;
import android.support.v7.app.AppCompatActivity;
import android.support.v7.widget.Toolbar;
import android.view.View;
import android.view.Menu;
import android.view.MenuItem;
import android.widget.AdapterView;
import android.widget.ArrayAdapter;
import android.widget.Button;
import android.widget.EditText;
import android.widget.Spinner;
import android.widget.Toast;

import com.tutorials.hp.spinnerrealm.m_Realm.RealmHelper;
import com.tutorials.hp.spinnerrealm.m_Realm.Spacecraft;

import java.util.ArrayList;

import io.realm.Realm;
import io.realm.RealmConfiguration;

public class MainActivity extends AppCompatActivity {

    Realm realm;
    ArrayList<String> spacecrafts;
    ArrayAdapter adapter;
    Spinner sp;
    EditText nameEdiText;

    @Override
    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        setContentView(R.layout.activity_main);
        Toolbar toolbar = (Toolbar) findViewById(R.id.toolbar);
        setSupportActionBar(toolbar);
        FloatingActionButton fab = (FloatingActionButton) findViewById(R.id.fab);

        sp= (Spinner) findViewById(R.id.sp);

        //REALM CONFIGURATION
        RealmConfiguration config=new RealmConfiguration.Builder(this).build();
        realm=Realm.getInstance(config);

        //retrieve
        RealmHelper helper=new RealmHelper(realm);
        spacecrafts=helper.retrieve();

        adapter=new ArrayAdapter(this,android.R.layout.simple_list_item_1,spacecrafts);
        sp.setAdapter(adapter);

        //ONCLICK
        sp.setOnItemSelectedListener(new AdapterView.OnItemSelectedListener() {
            @Override
            public void onItemSelected(AdapterView<?> parent, View view, int position, long id) {
                Toast.makeText(MainActivity.this,spacecrafts.get(position),Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
            }

            @Override
            public void onNothingSelected(AdapterView<?> parent) {

            }
        });

        fab.setOnClickListener(new View.OnClickListener() {
            @Override
            public void onClick(View view) {
                 displayInputDialog();
            }
        });
    }

    private void displayInputDialog()

    {
        Dialog d=new Dialog(this);
        d.setTitle("save To Realm");
        d.setContentView(R.layout.input_dialog);

        nameEdiText= (EditText) d.findViewById(R.id.nameEditText);
        Button saveBtn= (Button) d.findViewById(R.id.saveBtn);

        saveBtn.setOnClickListener(new View.OnClickListener() {
            @Override
            public void onClick(View v) {

                Spacecraft s=new Spacecraft();
                s.setName(nameEdiText.getText().toString());

                //save
                RealmHelper helper=new RealmHelper(realm);
                helper.save(s);

                nameEdiText.setText("");
                //RETRIEVE
                spacecrafts=helper.retrieve();
                adapter=new ArrayAdapter(MainActivity.this,android.R.layout.simple_list_item_1,spacecrafts);

                sp.setAdapter(adapter);

            }
        });

        d.show();

    }

}

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